The New Fuss About Exchange

IKEv2 is the IPsec key exchange protocol. The exchange rate information published daily by newspapers, central banks and other public sources is based on an average of interbank transactions, which occur electronically. It is possible to make up some back-of-the-envelope estimates for the expected deposit rate for an ideal ‘average’ institutional repository: an institution will have on the order of 1,000 faculty,3 each of whom might create 10 items per working year, e.g., four articles, two presentations, a poster, a set of research data and two teaching resources. Two of the repositories have very ‘gappy’ deposit records, indicating many days of inactivity between (often numerically high) deposits, while the others have more continuous daily deposit activity. Of the remaining fifteen, only three repositories show definite positive results against both criteria – Utrecht, Wageningen and Southampton – while three others (Terkko, HAL and Groningen) score positively on deposits and partially on scope (although note that two of those repositories are not genuinely ‘institutional’). At a time when too few measures of success are available for repository implementers, the patterns shown here should be of great interest to local repository managers. The definition of an institutional repository as “a set of services that a university offers to the members of its community for the management and dissemination of digital materials created by the institution and its community members” (Lynch 2003) has remained an accurate reference point for technical researchers and IT managers alike in the four years since it was coined.

The approximation argument is flawed: the squares on approximating curves may have sides decreasing to 0, in which case the limiting “square” degenerates to a point. Let’s assume for the sake of argument that Acme plc is trading at 1599/1600p. You think the price will rise, so you decide to buy 1000 share CFDs (units). This means the broker offers a wide range of options that traders can buy. Teams like supporters to buy season tickets because it guarantees that a seat will be paid for all year, whether or not the fan attends all the games. The day after the previous season ends. However, even the lower estimated target of 50 items per day may still impose a significant resourcing problem on repository management. It may be that any system of editorial management means that deposits are inevitably going to be “batched up” to give a less-than-continuous profile in which daily deposits are dominated by one or another editor’s subject specialty. However, if we limit ourselves to the rate of deposits and revise the ‘top 20’ list to be based on the number of medium-volume deposit days (i.e., days with 10-90 deposits), rather than the gross number of records, then twelve of the large but less active repositories disappear and are replaced by smaller (but more active) repositories.

We applied the deposit criteria factor presented above to the twenty largest institutional repositories listed by ROAR to determine whether there is evidence of double-digit daily deposits that were spread across the whole institution during the twelve months from March 2006. In doing so, we augmented the automated statistics provided by ROAR with a manual inspection of the repositories, particularly listings of their collections (or equivalent). Brogan, M. (2006). “Context and contributions: building the distributed library.” (Wash., olymp trade review promo D.C: Digital Library Federation). Such a repository should exhibit daily deposit activity whose graph (above) has the daily bars mainly concentrated in the central (10-100 deposits/day) region on the vertical axis. As well as linking to each repository’s cumulative data as a graph or table, the user is now offered various ways of finding out the deposit activity. Finally, there is a link to a separate page containing an interactive graph that allows the user to select an individual day to see its OAI records and containing sets (Figure 7). On that page, each OAI identifier is linked to its harvested OAI record and also to the repository abstract page describing that OAI resource.

The report in Figure 7 shows that on October 19, 2006, 8 records were added to the ‘CSAIL Technical Reports’ set in the MIT DSpace repository. DSpace repositories tend to use sets to reflect their collections structure, while EPrints repositories expose both the subject classifications and institutional structure. To complicate this simple model, repositories based on software such as DSpace and EPrints are designed to receive individual deposits and then marshal them into a workflow for editorial inspection and acceptance. By contrast, the OAI-PMH protocol allows a repository to divide its total collection into named ‘sets’ that can been seen by software harvesters (OAI service providers). The ideal profile for a successful repository is discussed, and a new service that ranks repositories based on these criteria is implemented. 5. Conducting overlap analysis for authors’ works in institutional and disciplinary repositories. Comparative analysis shows that their capitalisation is undervalued against the industry average. Each chart shows a separate repository with the days of the year across the horizontal axis, and the number of deposits received per day on the vertical axis. In fact, half of these large repositories are used for deposit less than half of the year (100 days or fewer).

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